Before we get stated let's define the difference between stock and broth.

Stock is a strained liquid that results from simmering meats, fish, herbs, and vegetables in
water. It is usually made by browning bones, vegetables and other ingredients before
they're cooked in the liquid for hours. Used as a basis for soups or sauces.

Broth is a flavorful, aromatic liquid made by simmering water or stock with meat or

Generally speaking, stock has a heartier, richer flavor. This is mostly due to the bones
used (broth is made with meat only and no bones). In most recipes the two can be
interchanged with similar results. Top chefs might tell you different, but for regular home
cooking, the dish will be fine. However, note that broth may end up saltier than stock, so
you may need to adjust your recipe accordingly.

Fond brun, or brown stock. The brown color is achieved by roasting the bones and
mirepoix. This also adds a rich, full flavor. Veal bones are the most common type used in
a fond brun. Tomato paste is often added (sometimes thinned tomato paste is painted
onto the roasting bones). The acid in the paste helps break down the connective tissue
helping accelerating the formation of gelatin, as well as giving color to the stock.
Fond blanc, or white stock, is made by using raw bones and white Mirepoix. Chicken
bones are the most common for fond blanc. White Mirepoix is made of some or all of these
like onions, celery, parsnips, white mushrooms, leeks, cauliflower. Used in dishes where
darker ingredients would be wrong for the colour. If you are adding garlic, add it at the end
as garlic can darken very quickly and affect the color.

Fish stock is made with fish bones and finely chopped Mirepoix (onions, carrots, and
celery). Fish stock should be cooked for 30 – 45 minutes, cooking any longer spoils the
flavor. Concentrated fish stock is called "Fish Fumet." In Japanese cooking, a fish and
kelp stock called Dashi is made by briefly (3–5 minutes) cooking Skipjack tuna (bonito)
flakes called Katsuobushi in nearly boiling water.

Chicken stock should be cooked for 3 – 4 hours.

Veal stock should be cooked anywhere from 8 - 12 hours.

Lamb stock should be cooked for 5 hours. To make a lamb jus, start with a chicken stock
and roasted lamb necks and bones.

Jus is a rich, lightly reduced stock used as a sauce for roasted meats. Many of these are
started by deglazing the roasting pan, then reducing to achieve the rich flavour desired.

Ham stock, common in Cajun cooking, is made from ham hocks.

Prawn stock is made from boiling prawn shells. It is used in Southeast Asian dishes such
as Laksa.

Vegetable stock is made only with vegetables.

Master stock is a special Chinese stock used primarily for poaching meats, flavored with
soy sauce, sugar, ginger, garlic, and other aromatics.

Glace Viande is stock made from bones, usually from veal, that is highly concentrated by

Below are several basic stock recipes to get you started.